Corollary: C6 regarding fitness for purpose.
What: Hard systems are not universally true i.e. true in all contexts and circumstances. Rather they are dependably fit for purpose to a degree in a context. Dependability corresponds to our common-sense notion of truth or fact. Statements deduced from dependable models correspond to reality in a particular context or situation.
Why: Models, by their very nature are partial representations of our reality. Consequently they are incomplete and are only dependable in the context to which they are relevant.
Corollary: C7 regarding duty of care
What: The dependability of a systems model requires those people involved to exercise a proper duty of care, to test the model to an appropriately dependable level based on evidence, to demonstrate sufficient competence and integrity and to be transparent about their values.
Why: Dependability has to be judged based on the testing of a model. The tests have to be as searching and rigorous as appropriate for the problem. Practical rigour requires diligence and duty of care that leaves no stone unturned with no sloppy or slip-shod thinking.
Corollary: C8 regarding subsidiarity
What: The Principle of Subsidiarity (as set out in the Treaty of Lisbon 2007 [Eur-Lex 2016] is that systems models should be created at the lowest practical level consistent with delivering their purpose.
Why: The idea here is that decisions should be as local as possible because that is where the problems are best understood.
Corollary: C9 regarding emergence
What: Holons have emergent properties. These are attributes that apply at only one or more layers as a result of interactions between holons at lower levels that do not exhibit these attributes.
Why: Emergent properties arise or come forth from inter- dependencies at more detailed layers. They are more common than many people realise. For example the pressure of a gas is the result of the buzzing around of gas molecules at a lower level of description. The human ability to walk and talk emerges from the co-operation our many subsystems.
Corollary: C10 regarding connectivity
What: Connections create relationships and patterns of relationships.
Why: In Chinese thought all things are interconnected. The internet is a web of interconnected computers. The brain is a network of highly interconnected neurones. Our infrastructure is an interconnected network of facilities.